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ICEWIND - Improved forecast of wind, waves and icing

Objective: To address cold climate aspects and include the production of icing atlas for Sweden and Iceland based on long term meteorological statistics.

Project objectives


The project objectives address cold climate aspects and will include the production of icing atlas for Sweden and Iceland based on long term meteorological statistics.


A main issue is the development and validation of short-term forecast of icing by use of numerical weather prediction models and different cloud and hydrometeor-parameterization schemes and include offshore sea spray icing. The final objective is development of an engineering tool for production loss calculation of large wind turbine installations in northern latitudes.


The project objectives related to offshore wind include resource mapping near Iceland and improved land-wind resource map such that the following objectives can be achieved: Full-scale studies on the integration of hydro and wind power in Iceland. The objectives are to identify and enumerate several potential future location scenarios for wind farms and identify location specific cost - benefit measures regarding investment and operations cost with timing and expansion assumptions for these scenarios. 


Furthermore, to estimate wind energy production when integrated with other resources and to identify transmission capacity restrictions and transmission loss measures for the range of locations and finally to design a market driven short term simulation system using optimization models.


Large-scale integration of wind power objectives include improved forecasting for 1) each wind farm, 2) the entire grid on energy production data and wake loss, 3) icing loss, and 4) offshore operation and cost effective maintenance, tools for optimising the choice of vessel types in different wave climates and providing specialized forecasts for accessibility will be addressed. The site conditions and forecasting results will be combined in analysis of the implications to the power system in the Nordic countries assuming increased amount of cold climate and offshore wind farms.


The objectives of the ICEWIND project aim to support the European targets for the high amount of renewable integration of the power systems in 2020, with the inevitable move towards offshore waters. The project outcomes are expected to be relevant for other cold climate areas of the world.


Result summary


The ICEWIND project has produced results that support the integration of large amounts of wind energy in the Nordic power system, where we move towards offshore waters and regions with cold climate. New high-resolution meteorological models were developed and used to create a wind and an icing atlas for Iceland, an icing atlas of Sweden as well as planning tools for offshore operations. A new tool was developed for analysis of the Icelandic power system and was used to analyse the effect of integrating a wind farm in this system with large amount of hydro power and a constant high demand. The variability of the Nordic power system with high amount of wind energy was investigated and the impact of forecasting errors on balancing needs was estimated. The new models for estimation of power loss from icing on wind turbines have contributed to strengthening the Nordic countries’ strong position in this field.


More information

Visit the ICEWIND website

Project duration: 1. September 2010 – 31 August 2014

TFI funding: 12.34 MNOK (59.3% of total budget)

Total budget: 20.80 MNOK

Participating organisations


Project leader


Niels-Erik Clausen, Lector

DTU Wind Energy, Denmark

+45 4677 5079


Project owner


Peter Hauge Madsen, Head of Division

DTU Wind Energy, Denmark


Project participants


  • Niels-Eric Clausen, DTU Wind Energy, Denmark
  • Peter Hauge Madsen, DTU Wind Energy, Denmark
  • Hannele Holttinen, VTT, Finland
  • Árni Snorrason, Icelandic Meteorological Office, Iceland
  • Kristján Jónasson, University of Iceland, Iceland
  • Úlfar Linnet, Landsvirkjun, Iceland
  • Árni Jón Elíasson, Landsnet, Iceland
  • Line Gulstad, Vestas Wind Systems, Denmark
  • Stefan Ivanell, Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, Sweden
  • Anne Karin Magnusson, Metereologisk Institutt, Norway
  • Øyvind Byrkjedal, Kjeller Vindteknikk, Norway
  • Nenad Keseric, Statoil, Norway
  • Fredrik Odfjell, Offshore Windservice, Norway
  • Haaken Annfeldt Moe, Oceaneering Asset Management, Norway
Photo: Landsvirkjun, Iceland
Contact person

Programme Secretary

Inger Strand Karni, Nordic Energy Research

Phone: +47 954 80 329