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Enesca - The organic energy storage device project

Objective: To carry out the research and development necessary to form the foundation for future commercialisation of a new type of paper-based, environment-friendly supercapacitors and battery.

The objective of the project is to carry out the research and development necessary to form the foundation for future commercialisation of a new type of paper-based, environment-friendly supercapacitors and battery.


The Salt and Paper Battery is a supercapacitor with electrodes consisting of cellulose from the green Cladophora algae and the conducting polymer polypyrrole operating in a water electrolyte.


This project encompasses research on a new type of cellulose-based nanomaterials for novel, efficient and environment-friendly energy storage devices. The innovative design of the proposed energy storage systems is based on the technology of coating individual cellulose fibres by 50-nanometre-thick layers of conductive polymer to obtain a lightweight, flexible, mechanically robust electrode material of large surface area with good charge capacity and very high charging rates. Since the proposed energy storage

devices involve water-based electrolytes and most likely can be manufactured entirely of non-metal components, these devices represent a largely unexploited resource for production of easily-disposable environment-friendly energy storage systems.


Result summary


Overall, the most important result from the project is that the basic concept has been brought from the lab bench to working prototypes ready to be further developed together with industrial partners. The project team has shown that the developed devices can be cycled for several thousands of cycles without losing capacity and that devices can be charged not only using constant currents but also potential steps. 


One of the results that may have the absolutely largest impact five years ahead is that the current prototypes may be used as bases for batteries with high energy densities by adding additional charge storage capacity to the electrodes.


More information


Read Enesca's final report

Visit Enesca's website

Check out the  video about Enesca

Click here for a full list of Enesca publications


Participating institutions



Project leader


Mateo Santurio

Uppsala University Innovation AB, Sweden

+46 18-471 7138


Project owner


Maria Strømme, Professor

Uppsala University, Sweden

+46 18 471 7231


Project participants


  • Robert Aronsson, ETC Batteries and Fuel Cells AB, Sweden
  • Viktor Ekermo, ETC Batteries and Fuel Cells AB, Sweden
  • Trond Helgerud, FMC, Norway
  • Fredrik Johansson, FoV Fabrics AB, Sweden
  • Göran Johansson, ETC Batteries and Fuel Cells AB, Sweden
  • Jari Keskinen, VTT, Finland
  • Kaisa Lehtinen, VTT, Finland
  • Albert Mihranyan, Uppsala University, Sweden
  • Leif Nyholm, Uppsala University, Sweden
  • Jani Pelto, VTT, Finland
  • Mateo Santurio, Uppsala University Innovation AB, Sweden
  • Pasi Selenius, VTT, Finland
  • Maria Smolander, VTT, Finland
  • Martin Sjödin, Uppsala University, Sweden
  • Maria Strømme, Uppsala University, Sweden
  • Al Tsai, FMC, Norway
  • Saara Tuurala, VTT, Finland
  • Sanna Virtanen, VTT, Finland
Contact person

Programme Secretary

Natalia Glette, Nordic Innovation


Phone: +47 410 45 211