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NCoE CRAICC - Cryosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate

Objectives: To identify and quantify the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outline strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and develop Nordic Earth System modelling. The focus is on short-lived climate forcers (SLCF), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols.

Lower levels of ice and snow cover may cause changes in cargo traffic, travel and tourism, oil exploration and production, fishing and agriculture. The society does, however, have a potential to influence Arctic warming, either through targeted emission control or geoengineering. But how important are the different feedback mechanisms including the ice-albedo feedback?

The ongoing Arctic climate change and cryosphere are interlinked through radiative forcing, arctic warming, changes in the cryosphere, society and human activities, and feedbacks in the climate system. Traditionally, the enhanced warming of Arctic areas has been explained by the so-called ice-albedo feedback.

The NCoE CRAICC will expand this thinking and include the roles of society and associated human activities as part of the interactions and feedback mechanisms acting on the Arctic climate system.

The NCoE CRAICC will focus on the role played by short-lived pollutants and aerosol-cloud interactions and their linkages with cryospheric changes, as:

  • their role in Arctic warming in potentially very large, yet poorly quantified
  • their emissions are expected to change considerably as a result of future warming and associated changes in human activities
  • and they might provide an additional mitigation pathway for future Arctic warming.

Result summary

The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC has now finished its fourth year with up to 80 peer-reviewed articles in international journals published. Since the start of the project 38 proposals of fellowships were submitted to the CRAICC-coordination office in Helsinki and altogether 378, 223 and 22.5 person month for PhD, post docs and visiting professors are funded, respectively in CRAICC until now.

A special focus inside the CRAICC project was directed towards education and knowledge transfer. During the last 4 years several intensive courses students on all levels (Master and doctoral students as well as post docs) were organized by CRAICC. Some of the courses were given in collaboration with the other NCoEs in Interaction between the Cryosphere and Climate Change (ICCC), DEFROST and SVALI.


More information

Read more at the CRAICC website

Click here for a list of CRAICC publications


Participating organisations





Markku Kulmala, Professor

Helsinki University, Finland

+358 91 9150 756



  • Markku Kulmala, Helsinki University, Finland
  • Matti Leppäranta, Helsinki University, Finland
  • Jaana Bäck, Helsinki University, Finland
  • Heikki Seppä, Helsinki University, Finland
  • Atte Korhola, Helsinki University, Finland
  • Gerrit de Leeuw, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
  • Ari Laaksonen, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
  • Henrik Skov, Aarhus University, Denmark
  • Marianne Glasius, Aarhus University, Denmark
  • Merete Bilde, Aarhus University, previously at University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Sven-Erik Gryning, DTU, Denmark
  • Elisabeth Isaksson, Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway
  • Andreas Stohl, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway
  • Knut Alfredsen, NTNU, Norway
  • Trond Iversen, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway
  • Gunnar Myhre, CICERO, Norway
  • Erik Swietlicki, Lund University, Sweden
  • Gesa Weyhenmeyer, Uppsala University, Sweden
  • Hans-Christen Hansson, Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Margareta Hansson, Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Caroline Leck, Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Jan Pettersson, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, University of Iceland, Iceland



Contact person

Programme Secretary

Jostein K. Sundet, NordForsk

Phone: +47 996 01 848